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Monday, July 15, 2019

Active Voice and Passive Voice





Verbs are either active or passive in voice. In the active voice, the subject and verb relationship is straightforward: the subject is a do-er. In the passive voice, the subject of the sentence is not a do-er. It is shown with by + do-er or is not shown in the sentence.

Passive voice is used when the action is the focus, not the subject. It is not important (or not known) who does the action. 

  • The window is broken. (It is not known who broke the window, or it is not important to know who broke the window.)
  • The class has been canceled. (The focus is on the class being canceled. It is not important to know who canceled it.)
  • The passive voice is often used. (The focus is on the passive voice. It is not important to explain who the writer is.)
Passive voice should be avoided when you want more clarity in writing. However, in some cases, you need to use passive voice to stress the action, not the actor. Also, passive voice can be considered more polite, as it sounds less aggressive or dramatic. 

  • That building was built in 1990.
  • The car was invented about a hundred years ago.
  • I was told that Mary moved to a different country.
  • Your business is appreciated.
  • She was elected to city council.
  • It was rumored that the company would lay off a few people soon.
  • It is recommended that the billing process be shortened.
You can easily rewrite an active sentence to a passive sentence. The object in the active sentence becomes a subject in the passive sentence. The verb is changed to a “be” verb + past participle. The subject of the active sentence follows by or is omitted. 

  • Sam wrote a letter to Jamie.
  • A letter was written to Jamie by Sam.


  • The government built a new bridge.
  • A new bridge was built by the government.


  • I recommend that you apply for this position.
  • It is recommended that you apply for this position.

[Quiz 17.1]

Rewrite the following sentence in passive voice.

John gave me a bunch of flowers on my birthday.

[Quiz 17.2]

Choose the sentences written incorrectly in the passive voice.

1)I was eaten an ice cream.
2)The song was sung by a singer.
3)I was deceived by the TV program.
4)The concert was finished at 12 p.m.
5)He was written a novel.
6)The tennis match was aired on TV.
7)He was treated kindly.
8)I have been managed a company since 2004.


---


Answers

[17.1]
I was given a bunch of flowers on my birthday by John.
OR
A bunch of flowers was given to me on my birthday by John.

[17.2]
1) I ate an ice cream.
5) He wrote a novel.
8) I have managed a company since 2004.

Friday, July 12, 2019

Wednesday, July 10, 2019

Monday, July 8, 2019

Interjections

An interjection is a word that expresses some kind of emotion. It can be used as filler. Interjections do not have a grammatical function in the sentence and are not related to the other parts of the sentence. If an interjection is omitted, the sentence still makes sense. It can stand alone.



  • Ouch! That hurts.
  • Well, I need a break.
  • Wow! What a beautiful dress!
When you are expressing a strong emotion, use an exclamation mark (!). A comma (,) can be used for a weaker emotion. 

Interjections do the following: 

1.Express a feeling—wow, gee, oops, darn, geez, oh:

  • Oops, I’m sorry. That was my mistake.
  • Geez! Do I need to do it again?
  • Oh, I didn’t know that.
2.Say yes or no—yes, no, nope:

  • Yes! I will do it!
  • No, I am not going to go there.
  • Nope. That’s not what I want.
3.Call attention—yo, hey:

  • Yo, will you throw the ball back?
  • Hey, I just wanted to talk to you about the previous incident.
4.Indicate a pause—well, um, hmm:

  • Well, what I meant was nothing like that.
  • Um, here is our proposal.
  • Hmm. You really need to be on a diet.

Quiz

What should be B’s expression?

A: I got a perfect score on the math exam.
B:                       (Well. Wow! or Um.)


What should be C’s expression?

C:                      ! (Nope, Hey, or Geez) My computer just broke.



--



Answers

B: Wow!
C: Geez

Friday, July 5, 2019

Sunday, June 30, 2019

Friday, June 28, 2019

Monday, June 24, 2019

The Parts of the Body in English and Their Pronunciation

Our body goes with us wherever we go. How could we try to learn a language and forget about the body? That is why one of the English lessons that we consider very useful is that of the body parts. On more than one occasion, you will need to accurately describe pain or discomfort. It is also important to know the correct pronunciation so that the people you are speaking to will know what you are talking about.

We have compiled the most important body parts with their pronunciation. We have also included a practical example that will help you to memorize them all simply. We recommend that you read this article and perform some additional practice exercises to make sure that you learn all of the vocabulary and the correct pronunciation. Let’s begin! 

The Basic and the Visible 
Let’s begin with the body parts that we all learned at school when we were young. You surely already know some of the following in English. 



The Extremities 
If you already knew more than two of the words from the previous list, then the extremities will definitely not be a challenge. Apart from the basic words, we have included some others that are not so obvious. 



The Internal Organs 
These words are also essential when at a doctor’s appointment or even when you simply feel a bit of discomfort. That is why it is important that you know them well so that you can correctly express what you are feeling. 


As you can see, this list has not been exhaustive, since our body has many parts. But the vocabulary you have learned in this article will be extremely useful on a day-to-day basis. Now, if you are interested in further enriching your vocabulary, it would be a good idea to dedicate some time every day to learning English.

Friday, June 21, 2019

TO Followed By -ING

Is it possible to use ‘to’ followed by the ‘ing’ form? 
For example, “I’m looking forward to seeing you.”
This is an excellent question, because normally, ‘to’ is followed by the base form. For example, “I want to order pizza,” or “He’s hoping to find a new job soon.” But there are some exceptions with specific words, and I’m going to tell you about them in today’s video.
Two such exceptions are the words confess or admit to doing something. For example, “He confessed to stealing the money.” We say “confessed to stealing,” not “he confessed to steal.”
In this sentence, the word stealing is a gerund. A gerund is the ‘ing’ form which functions as a noun in the sentence. For example, we could also say, “He confessed to the crime.”The crime is a noun, so we can replace the noun with the phrase “stealing the money”: “He confessed to stealing the money.”
Here’s an example with the word “admit:” “She won’t admit to cheating on the test.”Another way to say this is: “She won’t admit that she cheated on the test.” These two sentences are the same. It’s just phrased a little bit differently.
The next group of words that can be followed by ‘to’ plus the ‘ing’ form are: devoted, dedicated and committed to doing something. For example, “She’s dedicated to helping the poor.”
“Dedicated to” is followed by the gerund; “helping.” “She’s dedicated to helping the poor.” This also applies to the noun form, dedication. For example, “I’m impressed by her dedication to helping the poor.”
Devoted is similar to dedicated. We could also say, “She’s devoted to helping the poor”and “I’m impressed by her devotion to helping the poor.”
Here’s an example with “committed”: “We’re committed to improving the community.”And again, it works the same way with the noun form, “commitment.” For example, “We talked about our commitment to improving the community.”
So, ‘dedicated to,’ ‘devoted to,’ ‘committed to,’ and their noun forms; ‘dedication to,’ ‘devotion to,’ and ‘commitment to’ can all be followed by the -ING form of the verb.
Two more words like this are opposed to and object to. For example, “I’m opposed to changing the laws.” We could also say, “I’m opposed to a change in the laws.” ‘A change’ is a noun. Or, “I’m opposed to changing the laws.” In this sentence, again, ‘changing’ is the gerund. It’s the ‘ing’ form of the verb which is functioning as a noun in the sentence.
And this also works with the noun form of oppose: opposition. For example, “There’s a lot of opposition to changing the laws.”
The same applies to ‘object to’ and ‘objection to.’ For example, “We object to allowing smoking inside the building,” and “I don’t understand your objection to allowing smoking inside the building.”
A fourth group of words which is followed by ‘to’ plus the -ING form is: be used to or be accustomed to and adjust to. For example, “I’m not used to waking up so early.” Or, “I’m not accustomed to waking up so early.”
If you take a plane trip to a different time zone, then you might need to adjust to waking up earlier. So, these three expressions; ‘be used to,’ ‘be accustomed to,’ and ‘adjust to’ are also followed by the -ING form of the verb.
Finally, we have some phrasal verbs. Phrasal verbs that end in ‘to’ can also be followed by the -ING form. The two most common ones are probably look forward to and get around to.
With “look forward to,” don’t make the common mistake of saying, “I’m looking forward to see you.” It’s just not correct. Look forward to is a phrasal verb; it’s considered a unit, and after this phrasal verb we always use the -ING form.
Get around to means to manage to do something after some delays or despite not having a lot of time. For example, “I never got around to calling her back.” This means I didn’t have a lot of time and I had other things going on, so I didn’t manage to call her back. You can say, “I never got around to calling her back.”
You can also use “get around to” for the future: “I’ll get around to doing this project sometime next week.” This means I don’t know exactly when because I have a lot of other commitments, but I will manage to do it. I will get around to doing it sometime next week.
So, just to review: normally, after the word ‘to’ we use the base form of the verb, but there are some exceptions, such as:
  • confess or admit to doing something
  • oppose or object to doing something
  • be dedicated / devoted / committed to doing something;
  • be used to / be accustomed to / adjust to doing something.
  • phrasal verbs, like look forward to doing something or get around to doing something.
Using ‘to’ plus the ‘ing’ form is unusual in English, but there are a few cases, as you’ve seen in the examples in this video. Thanks for watching and I’ll see you next lesson.

Wednesday, June 19, 2019

Is “News” Singular Or Plural?


Here’s an interesting question: is the word news singular or plural? Should we say the news is good or the news are good?
Today I’ll answer this question as well as help you avoid a common mistake that English learners often make with “news.” And I also have a very special announcement, so make sure to watch to the end of the lesson to find out what that is!
The word “news” in English is considered singular and uncountable. So we use the singular forms of verbs, like is and was: the news is on channel 5, the news wassurprising. Don’t use are or were.
But a more common mistake is saying “a news.” With uncountable nouns, we never use a or an. So don’t say, “I heard a good news” – this might be possible in your native language, but in English you should say “I heard some good news.”
So if the word news is singular and uncountable, how can we talk about more than one piece of news? Well, that’s one possibility – use the word “piece” or “bit” – for example, “I have three pieces/bits of bad news for you” if you want to talk about three distinct topics.
We could also talk about “items of news” or sometimes “news stories” – the term news stories is often used when referring to news you see on TV or read articles about.
Finally, never say “many news” – the word “many” can only be used with countable nouns. Instead, you can use “much” or “a lot of / lots of” – for example, “there wasn’t much news over the weekend” or “I have lots of news to tell you!”
Got it? News is singular, and uncountable – so make sure to say “some news” and never “a news.”

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Word of the Month

Holy

(adj): Sacred, divine, blessed.


Holiday: a holy or festive day; a day off, vacation (also sacred)


Expressions: Holy Cow! Literally true in India.

Ex: Holly Mackerel! Delicious, healthy and full of mercury.

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